Marine Biology is one of several courses that fulfills the research-intensive requirement for Biology majors. Normally, this component of Marine Biology is achieved through hands-on research at a local intertidal shore and students present their research and write reports. Due to the circumstances we find ourselves in, this is currently not possible. To meet the requirement, you will be writing research proposals instead. Writing research proposals are equally important as final research reports. This is because research (in the form of evaluating existing literature) needs to be conducted before a feasible proposal can be written.
Since this is the first time students in the course are writing research proposals, there are no prior examples of how they have been done. However, there are a number of paper reports. What you will do is pick and evaluate three paper reports students have done in the past. Then, you are to pick one of the three paper reports to write your proposal, with the goal of improving the research. In other words, you are to write a proposal of the research with modifications and improvements; i.e., make the research more feasible.
Below is a list of titles of paper reports students have done in the past. Please let me know through email, which three you would like to evaluate. I will then email those three paper reports to you. Below the list are the evaluation prompts. On a separate document, please respond to those prompts.
1. The effect of wave exposure on biodiversity and species richness on inner and outer bays of Cabrillo Beach in San Pedro, California
2. Biodiversity of the inner and outer bay of Cabrillo Beach
3. Marine biodiversity in the outer and inner bays of Cabrillo Beach
4. Species diversity within the inner and outer bays at Cabrillo Beach
5. Low correlation between wave exposure, salinity, and kelp size on the intertidal shores of
Cabrillo Beach, California
6. Species richness and diversity of epifaunal organisms in the inner and outer bays of
7. Volume and salinity effects on biodiversity on near and far tidal pools in Cabrillo Beach
8. Species diversity of red and brown algae in wave exposed vs. rocky areas
9. The effects of wave exposure on limpet distribution and abundance within the intertidal
zones of southern California
10. Comparing habitat location and population density with Emerita analoga at Cabrillo
Beach using quadrats
11. Effects of salinity and dissolved oxygen on sea anemone size and abundance in tide pools
12.Oxygen and temperature levels and their effects on abundance of Anthopleura
elegantissima 13.The effects of temperature and oxygen levels on the abundance of Anthopleura
elegantissima in the tide pools of Cabrillo Beach, California
14. Wave exposure on the abundance and diameter size of Anthopleura elegantissima at
15. Lowered abundance of Lottia gigantea in exposed areas at Cabrillo Beach, CA as a result
of human poaching
16. Global warming indicators: the effects of pH on the distribution of zooplankton and
phytoplankton in three areas of Cabrillo Beach
17. The effects of pH on the prevalence of plankton off the Cabrillo Beach coast
18. Abundance and size of sea anemones due to wave exposure at Cabrillo Beach
19. A greater abundance of Littorina planaxis in the high tide at Cabrillo Beach, CA 20. Human interference may lead to a steep decline in the abundance of sea anemones in
local coasts 21.Increased salinity levels and lower temperatures may result in a more suitable
environment for hermit crabs 22.Variation of dissolved oxygen contents in tide pools containing predominantly red
(Rhodophyta) or brown (Phaeophyta) algae and effects on species richness
23. Species biodiversity at Cabrillo Beach over time
24. The reduction of biodiversity at Cabrillo Beach resulting from increased human foot
25. The effect of time and impact on species biodiversity along the rocky intertidal shore of
26. Human interference on sea anemones: upon the rocky tidal coast of San Pedro, Los
27. Higher salinity levels and lower temperatures may result in a more suitable environment
for hermit crabs
28. The consistency of biodiversity and species richness at Cabrillo Beach over time
29. Insignificant amounts of species diversity found among red and brown algae in wave-
exposed vs. rocky areas
1. Is there anything in particular about the Title that made you select the report to
evaluate? Please explain.
2. Based on the Title alone, what do you think the report is about?
1. Does the Abstract provide the general purpose of the research? If so, please write
the specific sentence(s) that describe this.
2. Does the Abstract provide the specific objective (goal or aim) of the research? If
so, please write the specific sentences(s) that describe this.
3. Does the Abstract provide the hypothesis or hypotheses? If so, please write the
specific sentence(s) that states it or them.
4. Does the Abstract provide the most important methods? If so, please write the
specific sentence(s) that describe these.
5. Does the Abstract provide the results that addresses the hypothesis or hypotheses?
If so, please write the specific sentence(s) that describe these.
6. Does the Abstract provide a conclusion on the general importance of the research to science and society? If so, please write the specific sentence(s) the describe
1. Does the Introduction provide an adequate background? Please describe the strengths and weaknesses of the background information.
2. Does the Introduction provide the current knowledge about the topic? Please describe the strengths and weaknesses of the introduction with respect to the current knowledge.
3. Does the Introduction provide the unknown or topic that is to be explored further? Please describe the strengths and weaknesses with respect to the unknown.
d. Does the Introduction provide a testable hypothesis or hypotheses? Please describe the strengths and weaknesses of the hypothesis or hypotheses.
1. Does the Methods contain enough detail that you can replicate the experiment?
Please describe the strengths and weaknesses of the data collection procedures.
2. Does the Methods explain why specific procedures taken? If so, please provide one. If not, why do you think explaining why specific procedures is important?
3. Does the Methods contain the independent and dependent (if any) variables? If so,
what are they? If not, please identify them. Which is/are the independent variables
and what is the dependent variable (if any)?
4. Does the Methods contain the specific statistical analyses used? If so, what are
they? Are they appropriate in testing the hypothesis? If not, what would be the
best statistical test(s) to use to test the hypothesis?
1. Does the Results contain a paragraph or paragraphs that explain the general trends? Please describe the strengths and weaknesses of the information provided.
2. Does the Results contain raw data or interpretations? Please explain why neither of these should be in the Results.
3. Does the Results contain the statistical significance values? Are they correctly interpreted? For example, if the result is significant, does it support or not support the hypothesis?
4. Are figures included in the Results? Are they detailed? In other words, do they contain enough information that they can stand on their own? For example, if all you saw of this report are the figures with their respective captions, would you know what the research is about?
5. Are the figures the appropriate representation of the results? If so, please explain why. If not, please provide a better figure.
6. Are tables included in the Results? Are they detailed? Do they contain enough information that they can stand on their own?
7. Do the figures and tables show the same information? If so, which would be better left out and why?
1. Does the Discussion restate the hypothesis and major trends? Please describe the
strengths and weaknesses of this information.
2. Does the Discussion explain how the experiment helped in understanding what is
known and the unknown? Please describe the strengths and weaknesses of this
3. Does the Discussion provide future directions? If so, would they help in further
understanding the known and the unknown? If not, please provide a feasible
4. Does the Discussion contain a summary of the overall importance of the research
to science and society? If so, what are they? If not, provide a reasonable summary
of the overall importance of the research to science and society.
7. Title Revisited (reread the Title)
1. Does the title adequately describe the research conducted? How so?
2. Does the title include the focus species or organism?
c. Does the title contain the major result of the research? d. Regardless of how you responded to a, b, and c, rewrite the title so that it is more
representative of the research and contains both the focus species or organism and the major result.